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If i dont speak for those less privileged than myself, am i abandoning my political responsibility to speak out against oppression, a responsibility incurred by the very fact of my privilege? If i should not speak for others, should i restrict myself to following their lead uncritically? Is my greatest contribution to ? And if so, what is the best way to do this---to keep silent or to deconstruct my own discourse? The answers to these questions will certainly depend on who is asking them. The declaration that i speak only for myself has the sole effect of allowing me to avoid responsibility and accountability for my effects on others it cannot literally erase those effects. We are collectively caught in an intricate, delicate web in which each action i take, discursive or otherwise, pulls on, breaks off, or maintains the tension in many strands of the web in which others find themselves moving also.
In order to answer these questions we need to become clearer on the epistemological and metaphysical issues which are involved in the articulation of the problem of speaking for others, issues which most often remain implicit. Thus, in the hegelian aftermath, so-called subjective elements, or the historically specific conditions in which human knowledge occurs, are no longer rendered irrelevant or even obstacles to truth. We may experience hesitation from fear of being criticized or from fear of exacerbating a problem we would like to remedy, or we may experience a resolve to speak despite existing obstacles, but in many cases we experience having the possibility to speak or not to speak.
These are not the only possible effects, and some of the effects may not be pernicious, but all the effects must be taken into account when evaluating the discourse of patriarchy. I shall explore this issue further in the next section. Not only what is emphasized, noticed, and how it is understood will be affected by the location of both speaker and hearer, but the truth-value or epistemic status will also be affected.
In what ways can friendships at work be harmful. There is a strong, albeit contested, current within feminism which holds that speaking for others---even for other women---is arrogant, vain, unethical, and politically illegitimate. The conjunction of premises (1) and (2) suggest that the speaker loses some portion of control over the meaning and truth of her utterance.
George marcus and michael fischer (chicago university of chicago press, 1986) paul rabinow discourse and power on the limits of ethnographic texts to be privileged here will mean to be in a more favorable, mobile, and dominant position vis-a-vis the structures of powerknowledge in a society. In particular, it assumes that one retreat into ones discrete location and make claims entirely and singularly within that location that do not range over others, and therefore that one can disentangle oneself from the implicating networks between ones discursive practices and others locations, situations, and practices. First, there has been a growing awareness that where one speaks from affects both the meaning and truth of what one says, and thus that one cannot assume an ability to transcend her location.
At the same time, we have to acknowledge that the very decision to move over or retreat can occur only from a position of privilege. She agrees that an absolute prohibition of speaking for would undermine political effectiveness, and therefore says that she will avoid speaking for others only within her lesbian feminist community. Panamanian people, he tells us, want democracy and not tyranny, and want noriega out. Let me offer an illustration of this. Some people think that schools should not take all the blame.
Discourse - Wikipedia
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications: . In semantics and discourse analysis: Discourse is a conceptual generalization of conversation within each modality and context of communication.
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The Problem of Speaking For Others | Alcoff.com
Consider the following true stories: 1. Anne Cameron, a very gifted white Canadian author, writes several first person accounts of the lives of Native Canadian women.
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As my practices are made possible by events spatially far away from my body so too my own practices make possible or impossible practices of others. Why might one advocate such a partial retreat? Given that interpretations and meanings are discursive constructions made by embodied speakers, trebilcot worries that attempting to persuade or speak for another will cut off that persons ability or willingness to engage in the constructive act of developing meaning.
Yet the effects of the two statements are vastly different because the meaning of the claim changes radically depending on who states it. But a retreat from speaking for will not result in an increase in receptive listening in all cases it may result merely in a retreat into a narcissistic yuppie lifestyle in which a privileged person takes no responsibility for her society whatsoever.
Who is speaking to whom turns out to be as important for meaning and truth as what is said in fact what is said turns out to change according to who is speaking and who is listening. On the one hand, a theory which explains this experience as involving autonomous choices free of material structures would be false and ideological, but on the other hand, if we do not acknowledge the activity of choice and the experience of individual doubt, we are denying a reality of our experiential lives.
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Do try to use a good range of vocabulary. And an important implication of this claim is that meaning must be understood as plural and shifting, since a single text can engender diverse meanings given diverse contexts. Sometimes, as loyce stewart has argued, we do need a messenger to advocate for our needs. The ability of a ballerina, for instance, to maintain perfect balance and turn her movements into a work of art can only be developed with years of strenuous training. This procedure would be most successful if engaged in collectively with others, by which aspects of our location less obvious to us might be revealed.
Western anthropology and colonized people have been non-reciprocal, and supports the need for the westerners to begin to see again said, representing the colonized p. Choose ideas that you know you have the vocabulary to discuss. In particular, it assumes that one retreat into ones discrete location and make claims entirely and singularly within that location that do not range over others, and therefore that one can disentangle oneself from the implicating networks between ones discursive practices and others locations, situations, and practices. Begin by redescribing the phenomenon, the trend or the debate that is the focus of the essay question. Looking merely at the content of a set of claims without looking at their effects cannot produce an adequate or even meaningful evaluation of it, and this is partly because the notion of a content separate from effects does not hold up.
This claim requires us to shift the ontology of meaning from its location in a text or utterance to a larger space, a space which includes the text or utterance but which also includes the discursive context. However, if there is enough investment in research into alternatives i am optimistic that we will be able to phase out the use of these harmful toxins. However, this objection presupposes a particular conception of truth, one in which the truth of a statement can be distinguished from its interpretation and its acceptance. Do imagine that you are writing for someone who is not quite as well-informed as you are, so that you really have to make your points clear. So it might be argued that the retreat from speaking for others can be maintained without sacrificing political effectivity if it is restricted to particular discursive spaces. Topic 2 pesticides are chemicals used to kill insects that damage food crops. In the history of western philosophy, there have existed multiple, competing definitions and ontologies of truth correspondence, idealist, pragmatist, coherentist, and consensual notions. Thus, the problem with speaking for others exists in the very structure of discursive practice, irrespective of its content, and subverting the hierarchical rituals of speaking will always have some liberatory effects. But first i need to explain further my framing of the problem. Another distinction that might be made is between different material practices of speaking for giving a speech, writing an essay or book, making a movie or tv program, as well as hearing, reading, watching and so on.Essay Writing Advice (for ECPE and C2 EFL exams) Here we tell you how to write an essay that will get good marks in an English language (EFL/ESL) exam such as the Michigan ECPE.
CBSE Class 11 English Passages for Comprehension - Discursive ...Passage 1: The art of reading right. Reading Comprehension (RC, as it is normally called) is the most peculiar section in almost all scholastic, entrance and employment tests.
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I will attempt to make these issues clear before turning to discuss some of the possible responses to the problem and advancing a provisional, procedural solution of my own. Given this analysis, even ethnographies written by progressive anthropologists are regressive because of the structural features of anthropological discursive practice. This may be the intention of my speech, and even its meaning if we take that to be the formal entailments of the sentences, but it will not be the effect of the speech, and therefore cannot capture the speech in its reality as a discursive practice. But as maria lugones and others have forcefully argued, such an act serves no good end when it is used as a disclaimer against ones ignorance or errors and is made without critical interrogation of the bearing of such an autobiography on what is about to be said Buy now Discursive Essay Environment
Looking at these examples, there are two obvious types of essay question descriptive and discursive (i. When i speak for myself i am participating in the creation and reproduction of discourses through which my own and other selves are constituted. If it is appropriate or necessary to mention examples, choose ideas that you know you have examples for. To whom one is accountable is a politicalepistemological choice contestable, contingent and, as donna haraway says, constructed through the process of discursive action. In particular, it assumes that one retreat into ones discrete location and make claims entirely and singularly within that location that do not range over others, and therefore that one can disentangle oneself from the implicating networks between ones discursive practices and others locations, situations, and practices Discursive Essay Environment Buy now
Once we pose it as a problem of representation, we see that, not only are speaking for and speaking about analytically close, so too are the practices of speaking for others and speaking for myself. A quick impulse to reject criticism must make one wary. Topic 1 in most families there is one family member who doesnt follow societys rules and often embarrasses the rest of the family by doing or saying something unusual or funny. Depending on the essay task, you might need to describe examples (as in the question about intelligence), discuss different points of view, describe causes, make suggestions, and give reasons for your point of view. Joyce trebilcots version of the retreat response, which i mentioned at the outset of this essay, raises other issues Buy Discursive Essay Environment at a discount
The recognition that there is a problem in speaking for others has followed from the widespread acceptance of two claims. However, they are meant only to suggest the questions that should be asked concerning any such discursive practice. And the effect of the practice of speaking for others is often, though not always, erasure and a reinscription of sexual, national, and other kinds of hierarchies. I hope that this analysis will contribute toward rather than diminish the important discussion going on today about how to develop strategies for a more equitable, just distribution of the ability to speak and be heard. In his notes, the examiner calls this a strong beginning, but not everybody would agree Buy Online Discursive Essay Environment
Similarly, when one is speaking about another, or simply trying to describe their situation or some aspect of it, one may also be speaking in place of them, i. In conclusion, for the sake of both the environment and human health drastic reductions in our use of pesticides must be made. In the history of western philosophy, there have existed multiple, competing definitions and ontologies of truth correspondence, idealist, pragmatist, coherentist, and consensual notions. In list form they may appear to resemble an algorithm, as if we could plug in an instance of speaking for and factor out an analysis and evaluation. Those who are not in a position of speaking at all cannot retreat from an action they do not employ Buy Discursive Essay Environment Online at a discount
Latin america in this way is to re-consolidate u. Do not use extremely general sentences that say nothing about your particular topic (sentences such as there are two sides to every coin. The final response to the problem of speaking for others that i will consider occurs in gayatri chakravorty spivaks rich essay can the subaltern speak? Spivak rejects a total retreat from speaking for others, and she criticizes the self-abnegating intellectual pose that foucault and deleuze adopt when they reject speaking for others on the grounds that their position assumes the oppressed can transparently represent their own true interests. President george bush declares in a public address that noriegas actions constitute an outrageous fraud and that the voice of the panamanian people have spoken Discursive Essay Environment For Sale
Any statement will invoke the structures of power allied with the social location of the speaker, aside from the speakers intentions or attempts to avoid such invocations. Western anthropology and colonized people have been non-reciprocal, and supports the need for the westerners to begin to see again said, representing the colonized p. Do try to use a good range of vocabulary. The claim here that truth is connected to politics follows necessarily from premise (1). In conclusion, for the sake of both the environment and human health drastic reductions in our use of pesticides must be made.
One very powerful argument against pesticides is that they are harmful to humans. In conclusion, i would stress that the practice of speaking for others is often born of a desire for mastery, to privilege oneself as the one who more correctly understands the truth about anothers situation or as one who can champion a just cause and thus achieve glory and praise For Sale Discursive Essay Environment
What this entails in practice is a serious commitment to remain open to criticism and to attempt actively, attentively, and sensitively to hear the criticism (understand it). I am a panamanian-american and a person of mixed ethnicity and race half whiteangla and half panamanian mestiza. As gayatri spivak likes to say, the invention of the telephone by a european upper class male in no way preempts its being put to the use of an anti-imperialist revolution. Simply put, the discursive context is a political arena. Topic 1 there is a saying, curiosity killed the cat, meaning that when a person is overly curious (eager to learn, know, or investigate something or someone) it can lead to trouble Sale Discursive Essay Environment
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